Electrical characteristics of Er doped BaTiO3 ceramics
In this study, the electrical resistivity (ρ) and PTC effect of Er doped BaTiO3 ceramics are investigated. The concentrations of Er2O3 in the doped samples vary from 0.01 to 1.0 at% Er. The samples are prepared by the conventional solid state reaction, and sintered at 1320° and 1350 °C in air atmosphere for 4 hours. The SEM analysis shows that all of measured samples are characterized by polygonal grains. The uniform and homogeneous microstructure with grain sizes from 20 to 45μm is the main characteristic of the low doped samples (0.01 and 0.1 at% Er). For the samples doped with the higher dopant concentration (0.5 and 1.0 at%) the average grains sizes have been ranged from 5 to 10 μm. The electrical resistivity is measured in the temperature range from 25 °C to 170 °C, at frequencies 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz. The electrical resistivity values, measured at frequency of 1 kHz and room temperature, have been ranged from 1.62·104 Ωcm to 4.24∙104 Ωcm, for samples sintered at 1320 °C and from 1.43·104 Ωcm to 1.94∙104 Ωcm, for samples sintered at 1350 °C. A nearly flat and stable electrical resistivity-temperature response is characteristic for all samples at the temperature range from 25 °C to 120 °C. Above this temperature, the electrical resistivity increases rapidly. At 170°C the value of electrical resistivity is ranged 9.84·104 Ωcm -1.62·105 Ωcm, for Tsin=1320 °C, and 6.11·104 Ωcm 1.32·105 Ωcm, for Tsin=1350 °C. The electrical resistivity decreases with concentration increment up to 0.5 at%, while above 0.5 at% it increases. Also, with increasing frequency, ρ decreases for a few orders of magnitude.
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