Discrete Temperature Values in the Sintering Process as a BaTiO3-ceramics Properties Parameter

  • Z. B. Vosika University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering
  • V. V. Mitić University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering; Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA
  • G. M. Lazović University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
  • Ljubiša Kocić University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering


In this paper, we develop the new physical-mathematical time scale approach-model applied to BaTiO3-ceramics. At the beginning, a time scale is defined to be an arbitrary closed subset of the real numbers R, with the standard inherited topology. The time scale mathematical examples include real numbers R, natural numbers N, integers Z, the Cantor set (i.e. fractals), and any finite union of closed intervals of R. Calculus on time scales (TSC) was established in 1988 by Stefan Hilger. TSC, by construction, is used to describe the complex process. This method may be utilized for a description of physical, material (crystal growth kinetics, physical chemistry kinetics - for example, kinetics of barium-titanate synthesis), bio-chemical or similar systems and represents a major challenge for nowadays contemporary scientists. Generally speaking, such processes may be described by a discrete time scale. Reasonably it could be assumed that such a “scenario” is possible for discrete temperature values as a consolidation parameter which is the basic ceramics description properties. In this work, BaTiO3-ceramics discrete temperature as thermodynamics parameter with temperature step h and the basic temperature point a is investigated. Instead of derivations, it is used backward differences with respect to temperature. The main conclusion is made towards ceramics materials temperature as description parameter.